Biology -Heredity -Important Points

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1-Heredity is the genetic information passing for traits from parents to their offspring, either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction.

2-The study of heredity in biology is called genetics, which includes the field of epigenetics.

3-Inherited traits are controlled by genes and the complete set of genes within an organism’s genome is called its genotype.

4-The complete set of observable traits of the structure and behavior of an organism is called its phenotype.

5-Heritable traits are known to be passed from one generation to the next via DNA, a molecule that encodes genetic information.

6- Within cells, the long strands of DNA form condensed structures called chromosomes.

7- The specific location of a DNA sequence within a chromosome is known as a locus.

8-If the DNA sequence at a particular locus varies between individuals, the different forms of this sequence are called alleles.

9- Charles Darwin proposed his theory of evolution in 1859

10-The idea of particulate inheritance of genes can be attributed to the Moravian monk Gregor Mendel who published his work on pea plants in 1865.

11-A human chromosome can have up to 500 million base pairs of DNA with thousands of genes.

12-The existence of discrete inheritable units was first suggested by Gregor Mendel (1822–1884)

13-Darwin used the term gemmule to describe hypothetical particles that would mix during reproduction.

14- In 1905, the word genetics was first used by William Bateson.

15-In 1909 the Danish botanist Wilhelm Johannsen shortened the name to “gene”.

16-The structure of DNA was studied by Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins using X-ray crystallography, which led James D. Watson and Francis Crick to publish a model of the double-stranded DNA molecule.

17-The modern study of genetics at the level of DNA is known as molecular genetics.

18-In 1972, Walter Fiers and his team at the University of Ghent were the first to determine the sequence of a gene: the gene for Bacteriophage MS2 coat protein.

19-RNA also contains the base uracil in place of thymine.

20-RNA molecules are less stable than DNA and are typically single-stranded.

21-The process of producing a biologically functional molecule of either RNA or protein is called gene expression, and the resulting molecule is called a gene product.

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