Geography-Some Basic Terms/Terminology/Other important points
1-Confluence: The point at which two rivers or streams join.
2-Mouth: The point where the river comes to the end, usually when entering a sea.
3-Tributary: A smaller river which joins a larger stream or river and thus increases its water volume.
4-Distributary: The small river that branches out from the main river and then never meets again.
5-River Basin: All the area drained by a river and its tributaries.
6-Catchment area: It refers to all the area of land over which rain falls and is caught to serve a river basin.
7-River Profile: It refers to the cross-section of a river from its source to mouth representing the height of the river at various points. The peninsular rivers have almost reached their base levels of erosion.
8-River Rejuvenation refers to a significant enhancement in the erosive power of the rivers.
9-River regime: It refers to the seasonal fluctuation in respect of volume of water in the river.
10-Discharge: The volume of water flowing in a river measured over time. It is measured either in cusecs (cubic feet per second) or cumecs (cubic metres per second)
11-Delta: A river mouth choked with sediment causing the main channel to split into smaller branching channels or distributaries. The name originates from the Greek for the Delta’s ‘D’-like shape.
12-Erosion: the wearing away of the bed and banks of the river channel by abrasion, hydraulic action, solution, and attrition.
13-Eutrophication- the excessive richness of nutrients in a lake or other body of water, frequently due to run-off from the land, which causes a dense growth of plant life.
14-Gorge: a steep-sided, narrow rocky valley marking the retreat of a waterfall.
15-Meander: A bend in a river. The outside of the meander has the fastest flow and deepest water.
16-Ox-Bow Lake: a meander which has been cut off from the main river channel and abandoned.
17-Sedimentation: The settling out of suspended particles from a body of water (or in some cases, very fine particles settled from the air or blown by the wind.
18-Spur: a narrow neck of Highland extending into a river valley, often forming the divide between two tributaries.
19-Traction: material rolled along the bed of the river.
20-V-shaped Valley: a deep V-shaped valley is usually found in the upper course of the river where the water has considerable erosive power.
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