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Science -Important points

1- Anthracite, also called hard coal, the most highly metamorphosed form of coal. It contains more fixed carbon than any other form of coal and the least amount of volatile matter and it has calorific values near 35 mega joules per kilogram.

2-  Lysosomes are called suicide sacks. They are produced by the Golgi body. They consist of a single membrane surrounding powerful digestive enzymes. It acts as the “garbage disposal” of the cell by breaking down cell components that are no longer needed as well as molecules or even bacteria that are ingested by the cell.

3-The Wohlwill process refers to an electrolytic process for refining gold using a hydrochloric-acid electrolyte. The process gives gold of 99.999% pure, and of higher purity than gold produced by the other common refining method.

4- Polymetalic nodules, also called manganese modules, are rock concentrations on the sea bottom formed of concrete layers of iron and manganese hydroxides around a core. Polymetalic nodules are made up of several metals and non metals. Nodules mainly contain manganese (29.40%), iron (6%), aluminium (2.9%), nickel (1.34%), copper (1.25%), cobalt and titanium as the major components.

5- Sodium nitrite and Sodium benzoate are commonly used to preserve meat products. It prevents bacteria growth and help meat to retain its color.

6- Syngas or synthesis gas, is a fuel gas mixture consisting primarily of hydrogen, carbon monoxide and very often some carbon dioxide. Syngas is combustible and often used as a fuel of internal combustion engine. The syngas is produced by gasification of a carbon containing fuel to a gaseous product that has some heating value.

7-The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array is an Explorer mission that will allow astronomers to study the universe in high energy X-rays. Launched in June of 2012, NuSTAR is the first focusing hard X-ray telescope to orbit Earth. NuSTAR’s primary science objectives include: Conducting a census for black holes on all scales using wide-field surveys of extragalactic fields and the Galactic center. Mapping radioactive material in young supernova remnants; studying the birth of the elements and to understand how stars explode.

8- For early and rapid diagnosis of drug resistant tuberculosis, new diagnostic technologies such as Line Probe Assay (LPA) and Cartridge Based Nucleic Acid Amplification Test (CBNAAT) have been developed globally. India is using these technologies since 2012.

9-A pair of NASA spacecraft tumbled out of orbit around the moon and crashed into the surface, ending a mission that peered into the lunar interior. The twin spacecraft were called Ebb and Flow. Ebb plunged first, slamming into a mountain near the moon’s north pole. Its twin, Flow, followed about a half minute later and aimed for the same target. The demise of Ebb and Flow comes on the same month as the 40th launch anniversary of Apollo 17, the last manned mission to the moon

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