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Glossary -Biology Terms

1-Abscission – shedding of flowers and leaves and fruit following formation of scar tissue in a plant

2-Absolute zero – the lowest theoretically attainable temperature (at which the kinetic energy of atoms and molecules is minimal); 0 Kelvin or -273.15 Celsius of -459.67 Fahrenheit.

3-Abscisic acid – a plant hormone with the formula C15H20O4

4-Abyssal zone – the deep sea (2000 meters or more) where there is no light.

5-Acclimatization – adaptation to a new climate (a new temperature or altitude or environment).

6-Acid precipitation – rain containing acids that form in the atmosphere when industrial gas emissions (especially sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides) combine with water.

7-Actin – one of the proteins into which actomyosin can be split; can exist in either a globular or a fibrous form.

8-Active site – the part of an enzyme or antibody where the chemical reaction occurs

9-Atom – the smallest component of an element having the chemical properties of the element

10-Asexual reproduction – process of reproduction involving a single parent that results in offspring that are genetically identical to the parent

11-Arachnology – scientific study of spiders, scorpions, pseudoscorpions, and harvestmen, collectively called arachnids.

12-Anatomy – the branch of morphology that deals with the structure of animals

13-Amino acid – a class of organic compounds containing an amino group and a carboxylic acid group

14-Agriculture – the practice of cultivating land, growing food, and raising stock.

15-Aerobic – depending on free oxygen or air.

16-Adenosine triphosphate – a nucleotide derived from adenosine that occurs in muscle tissue; the major source of energy for cellular reactions. The chemical formula for ATP is C10H16N5O13P3

17-Active transport – transport of a substance (as a protein or drug) across a cell membrane against the concentration gradient; requires an expenditure of energy

18-Agrobiology – the study of plant nutrition and growth especially as a way to increase crop yield

19-Amniote – organisms that produce an egg composed of shell and membranes that creates a protected environment in which the embryo can develop out of water

20-Artificial selection – professionals study the genotype and phenotype of parent organisms in the hope of producing a hybrid that possesses many of the desirable characteristics found in their parents. Also known as selective breeding.

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