Biology- One-Liners- for various competitive examinations

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Biology- One-Liners- for various competitive examinations

Thank You all for landing on the page of Biology. The subject Biology plays an important role in various competitive examinations conducted by various organizations. Biology One-Liners help a lot.

The subject plays an important role in various competitive examinations conducted by various organizations. Biology bits help a lot.

Minerals in Human Body

* Minerals are important substances that help body’s form and function on many different levels.

* Minerals are Inorganic Substances. They have ‘No Energy’ value but imbalance may cause diseases.

* Two different types of minerals are required to the human body. They are

1. Macro-Minerals (or) Macro-Nutrients: These are the minerals that our body needs in larger amounts. Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Sodium, Potassium, Chloride and Sulphur are included in this type.

2. Micro-minerals (or) Micro-Nutrients: Our body needs just small amounts of trace minerals. Iron, Manganese, Copper, Iodine, Zinc, Cobalt, Fluoride and Selenium are included in this group.

* Mineral Calcium

*Function- Component of bones and teeth, helps in blood clotting, Muscle contraction, Conduction of nerve impulses etc. Calcium acts as a cofactor of Myosin ATPase.
*Deficiency/ Diseases- Calcium deficiency leads to defective bones and teeth, Tetany and rickets, Loss of muscle coordination etc
*Sources- Milk, dairy foods, cereals (Ragi), meat, vegetables, fruits (Sitaphals)

* Mineral Phosphorous

* Function- Formation of bones and teeth, Component of nucleic acids, energy molecules, and coenzymes.
* Deficiency/ Diseases-Phosphorous deficiency leads to poor body growth, weak bones, and teeth.
* Sources- Milk, dairy foods, Cereals, eggs, fish, meat etc.

* Mineral Sodium


* Function-Maintains water balance, blood pressure, and nervous system.
* Deficiency/ Diseases- Sodium deficiency leads to improper muscle contraction; nervous depression; loss of Na+ in urine, dehydration
* Sources- Table salt, vegetables

* Mineral Potassium


* Function- Osmotic balance; muscle contraction; nerve impulse conduction
* Deficiency/ Diseases-Potassium deficiency leads to Nervous disorder; poor muscle control leading to paralysis
* Sources-Vegetables, molasses, banana, date etc


* Mineral Chlorine


* Function- Main anion of ECF, Acid-base balance
* Deficiency/ Diseases- Chlorine deficiency leads to Vomiting and hypochloremic alkalosis
* Sources- Common salt

* Mineral Magnesium


* Function- Cofactor for enzymes e.g. of hexokinase
* Deficiency/ Diseases- Magnesium deficiency leads to Heart and vascular irregularities; dilated blood vessels, loss of muscle coordination.
* Sources- Green leafy vegetables, soybeans etc

* Mineral Iron


* Function- Formation of Hb so help in O2 transport, Component of cytochromes of ETS, Cofactor of catalase enzyme.
* Deficiency/ Diseases- Iron deficiency leads to Anaemia; skin problems
* Sources- Liver, eggs, molasses, cereals, pulses, leafy vegetables, apple, guava etc.

* Mineral Iodine


* Function- Normal functioning of thyroid; component of thyroxin so controls BMR
* Deficiency/ Diseases- Iodine deficiency leads to Goiter, Cretinism, Myxoedema

* Sources- Seafood, leafy vegetables, water, iodized salt etc.

* Mineral Copper


* Function- Cofactor for enzymes e.g. oxidases and tyrosinase, Component of hemocyanin.
* Deficiency/ Diseases- Copper deficiency leads to Anaemia
* Sources- Liver, spleen, kidneys, peanuts, beet etc

* Mineral Fluorine


* Function= Maintains enamel and prevents dental caries.
* Deficiency/ Diseases- Fluorine deficiency leads to Dental caries.
* Sources- Water, sea fish

* Mineral Zinc


* Function- Cofactor of carbonic anhydrase so helps in CO2 transport, Vitamin A metabolism
* Deficiency/ Diseases- Zinc deficiency leads to Reduced respiration
* Sources- Beef, cheese

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