Biology – Glossary Terms

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Biology – Glossary Terms-Continue..




Respiration: It is a chemical reaction catalysed by enzymes where (in case of aerobic respiration) oxygen combines with glucose to form carbon dioxide, water and energy.



Aerobic: It is a type of respiration where oxygen is involved. A type of respiration where oxygen is involved. An example of this type of respiration is alcoholic fermentation.

Anaerobic: It is a type of respiration that does not involve oxygen and doesn’t produce as much energy as aerobic respiration.



Regurgitation: It refers to the Ruminants that bring the food they have already eaten and swallowed back to their mouth to continue chewing it.



Rumen: It is a large stomach with 3 compartments found in ruminants.



Trachea: It is otherwise called windpipe. The second pipe from where air passes and is filtered by cilia and mucus secreting cells. Rings of cartilage to make it stiff surround this structure and so that it doesn’t get bent.

Pleural Membrane: It is athin membrane that covers the inside of the ribs and the outside of the lungs. It is a film of moisture between the two layers lets them slide easily over each other as the lungs move.



Lungs: These are the major organs in some animals needed for gas exchange.



Bronchus: It is one of the pipes from which air passes before going inside the lungs. There are two bronchi and they are attached to the trachea. Rings of cartilage to make it stiff surround these structures.



Gall Bladder: It is an organ used to store bile.



Alveoli: It is also called air sacks. It is the place where the actual gas-exchange takes place. These are the tiny structures surrounded by many blood vessels to ensure that gas exchange takes place rapidly and efficiently.



Duodenum: It is the first part of the small intestine. It continues digestion of food and it receives enzymes from the intestinal wall and from the pancreas. It receives bile that the liver produced from the gall bladder.



Bile: It is a green chemical used for emulsification.

Oxygen Dept: When lactic acid is produce, a state called oxygen debt occurs, when after exercise the body continues breathing heavily so re gain all the oxygen needed by the muscle cells to break down lactic acid in carbon dioxide and water.



Emulsification: It is the process by which bile does detergent action on lipids. Fat molecules are too large to be absorbed by the blood so it is broken down into smaller molecules by the bile.



Deamination: The destruction of red blood cells so that the body forms new ones. This function is carried out by the liver, in fact, the liver is a source of iron.

Detoxification: It is one of the functions of the liver, where the liver breaks down drugs.



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