Geography,

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Geography
1-Latitude lines
Imaginary lines running horizontally around the globe. Also called parallels, latitude lines are equidistant from each other.
2-Longitude lines
Imaginary lines, also called meridians, running vertically around the globe. Unlike latitude lines, longitude lines are not parallel.
3-Hemisphere
A hemisphere is half the Earth’s surface. 
The four hemispheres are the Northern and Southern hemispheres, divided by the equator (0° latitude), and the Eastern and Western hemispheres, divided by the prime meridian (0° longitude) and the International Date Line (180°).
4-Equator
Zero degrees latitude. The Sun is directly overhead the equator at noon on the two equinoxes (March and Sept. 20 or 21)
5-Prime Meridian
Zero degrees longitude (0°). 
The prime meridian runs through the Royal Greenwich Observatory in Greenwich, England (the location was established in 1884 by international agreement).
 The prime meridian divides the globe into the Western and Eastern hemispheres.
6-International Date Line
Located at 180° longitude (180° E and 180° W are the same meridian).
 Regions to the east of the International Date Line are counted as being one calendar day earlier than the regions to the west. 
7-Tropic of Cancer
A line of latitude located at 23°30′ north of the equator. 
The Sun is directly overhead the Tropic of Cancer on the summer solstice in the Northern Hemisphere (June 20 or 21)
8-Tropic of Capricorn
A line of latitude located at 23°30′ south. 
The Sun is directly overhead the Tropic of Capricorn on the summer solstice in the Southern Hemisphere (Dec. 20 or 21)
9-Arctic Circle
A line of latitude located at 66°30′ north, delineating the Northern Frigid Zone of the Earth.
10-Antarctic Circle
A line of latitude located at 66°30′ south, delineating the Southern Frigid Zone of the Earth.
11-Globe
The most accurate map of the Earth, duplicating its spherical shape and relative size.
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