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Modern India (History)

Land Revenue  Systems

Permanent Settlement

1-  Introduced in Bengal,  Bihar, Orissa, and districts of Benaras & Northern  d istricts of Madras by Lord Cornwallis in 1793.

2-  It declared Zamindars as the owners of the land. Hence.  they could keep l/l1th of the  revenue collected to themselves while the British got a  fixed share of 10/11 th of the revenue collected.

The Zamindars were free to fix the rents

3- John Shore planned the Permanent Settlement.

4- Assured of their ownership,  many zamindars stayed in towns’(absentee  landlordism)  and exploited their ten ants.

Ryotwari System

1-The system was introduced in Bombay, Madras and Assam.  Munro (Viceroy) and Charles Reed recommended  it.

2- The revenue was fixed for a period  not exceeding 30 years, on the basis of the quality of the  soil  and the nature of the crop.

It was based on the  scientific  rent theory of Ricardo.
 
3- In this, a direct settlement was made  between the government and the ryot (cultivator).

4- Besides, the government itself became a big zamindar and  and retained the right to enhance revenue at will while the cultivator was left at  the mercy of its officers.

5- The position of the cultivator became more secure but the rigid system of revenue  collecton often forced him  into the clutches of the moneylender.

Mahalwari System

1-It was the  modified  version  of Zamindari  settlement introduced in the Ganga valley, NWFP.  parts of Central India & Punjab.

2- Revenue was periodically revised.  Colonial Impact of Land Revenue Systems

3- Revenue settlement was to be made  by village or estates with landlords.

4- The land settlements introduced market economy and did away  with  customary rights. Cash payment of revenue encouraged money-lending activity.

5- In western Uttar Pradesh, a settlement was made with the village  communities, which maintained a form  of common  ownership known as Bhaichara, or with Mahals, which  were groups of villages.

6- It sharpened social differentiation.

 Rich  had access to the courts to defend  their properly.

7- The stability  of the Indian Villages was shaken and   the setup of the rural society began to break up.

8- Forcible growing of commercial crops  proved hazardous  for the  peasants because they had to buy food grains at high prices and sell  cash crops at low prices.

                                                                                                                                                                                             

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