Modern India (History)
Land Revenue Systems
1- Introduced in Bengal, Bihar, Orissa, and districts of Benaras & Northern d istricts of Madras by Lord Cornwallis in 1793.
2- It declared Zamindars as the owners of the land. Hence. they could keep l/l1th of the revenue collected to themselves while the British got a fixed share of 10/11 th of the revenue collected.
The Zamindars were free to fix the rents
3- John Shore planned the Permanent Settlement.
4- Assured of their ownership, many zamindars stayed in towns’(absentee landlordism) and exploited their ten ants.
1-The system was introduced in Bombay, Madras and Assam. Munro (Viceroy) and Charles Reed recommended it.
2- The revenue was fixed for a period not exceeding 30 years, on the basis of the quality of the soil and the nature of the crop.
It was based on the scientific rent theory of Ricardo.
3- In this, a direct settlement was made between the government and the ryot (cultivator).
4- Besides, the government itself became a big zamindar and and retained the right to enhance revenue at will while the cultivator was left at the mercy of its officers.
5- The position of the cultivator became more secure but the rigid system of revenue collecton often forced him into the clutches of the moneylender.
1-It was the modified version of Zamindari settlement introduced in the Ganga valley, NWFP. parts of Central India & Punjab.
2- Revenue was periodically revised. Colonial Impact of Land Revenue Systems
3- Revenue settlement was to be made by village or estates with landlords.
4- The land settlements introduced market economy and did away with customary rights. Cash payment of revenue encouraged money-lending activity.
5- In western Uttar Pradesh, a settlement was made with the village communities, which maintained a form of common ownership known as Bhaichara, or with Mahals, which were groups of villages.
6- It sharpened social differentiation.
Rich had access to the courts to defend their properly.
7- The stability of the Indian Villages was shaken and the setup of the rural society began to break up.
8- Forcible growing of commercial crops proved hazardous for the peasants because they had to buy food grains at high prices and sell cash crops at low prices.