Agriculture- Food Crops

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Food Crops

1- Oil Seeds:

Examples of oil seeds produced in India are groundnut, mustard, coconut, sesamum (til), soyabean, castor seeds, cotton seeds, linseed and sunflower.

India is the largest producer of oilseeds in the world.

Some of these are edible and used as cooking mediums. Some are also used as raw material in the production of soap, cosmetics and ointments.

Different oil seeds are grown covering approximately 12 per cent of the total cropped area of the country.

2-Linseed and mustard

These food crops are rabi crops.

Sesamum is a kharif crop in north and rabi crop in south India.

Whereas Castor seed is grown both as rabi and kharif crop.

3- Tea:

Assam, hills of Darjeeling and Jalpaiguri districts, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu and Kerala are major Tea producing states.

Himachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Meghalaya, Andhra Pradesh and Tripura are also tea-producing states in the country.

Tea cultivation comes under plantation agriculture.

India is the leading producer as well as exporter of tea in the world

Tea an important beverage crop introduced in India initially by the British.

Tropical and sub-tropical climates best suited to Tea.

Tea plantation needs deep and fertile well-drained soil, rich in humus and organic matter.

Whereas Tea bushes need warm and moist frost-free climate all through the year.

To ensure continuous growth of tender leaves, frequent showers with evenly distribution over the year is the prime requirement.

Tea is processed within the tea garden to restore its freshness.

4- Groundnut

It is a kharif crop.

The food crop accounts for about half of the major oilseeds produced in the country.

Andhra Pradesh is the largest producer of groundnut followed by other states namely Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Gujarat and Maharashtra.

5- Sugarcane:

It is a tropical as well as a subtropical crop that grows well in hot and humid climate requiring a temperature of 21° C to 27° C and an annual rainfall between 75cm and 100cm.

The food crop can be grown on a variety of soils It needs manual labour from sowing to harvesting.

After Brazil, India is the second largest producer of sugarcane.

It is the main source of sugar, gur (jaggary), khandsari and molasses.

Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Punjab and Haryana are the major sugarcane-producing states.

6- Coffee

India produces about 4 per cent of the world’s coffee production.

Indian coffee is famous and known in the world for its good quality.

The Arabica variety brought from Yemen is produced in the country.

Its cultivation is confined to the Nilgiri in Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.

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