Biology -Blood

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1-Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells.

2-Plasma constitutes 55% of blood fluid, is mostly water (92% by volume), and contains dissipated proteins, glucose, mineral ions, hormones, carbon dioxide.

3- Albumin is the main protein in plasma.

4-The blood cells are mainly red blood cells (also called RBCs or erythrocytes), white blood cells (also called WBCs or leukocytes) and platelets (also called thrombocytes).

5-The most abundant cells in vertebrate blood are red blood cells. These contain hemoglobin, an iron-containing protein.

6- hemoglobin facilitates oxygen transport by reversibly binding to this respiratory gas and greatly increasing its solubility in blood.

7-Vertebrate blood is bright red when its hemoglobin is oxygenated and dark red when it is deoxygenated.

8- Insects and some mollusks use a fluid called hemolymph instead of blood.

9-White blood cells help to resist infections and parasites.

10- Platelets are important in the clotting of blood.

11-Blood is circulated around the body through blood vessels by the pumping action of the heart.

12-In animals with lungs, arterial blood carries oxygen from inhaled air to the tissues of the body.

13- Venous blood carries carbon dioxide, a waste product of metabolism produced by cells, from the tissues to the lungs to be exhaled.

14- In terms of anatomy and histology, blood is considered a specialized form of connective tissue.

15-Blood accounts for 7% of the human body weight with an average density of approximately 1060 kg/m3.

16-The average adult has a blood volume of roughly 5 litres.

17- By volume, the red blood cells constitute about 45% of whole blood, the plasma about 54.3%, and white cells about 0.7%.

18-Blood pH is regulated to stay within the narrow range of 7.35 to 7.45, making it slightly basic.

19-Blood that has a pH below 7.35 is too acidic, whereas blood pH above 7.45 is too basic.

20-The blood circulation was famously described by William Harvey in 1628.

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