Biology – Human Body -Various Systems

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Human Body


1- The human body is the entire structure which is composed of many different types of cells that together create tissues and subsequently organ systems.

2- Human body comprises a head, neck, trunk (which includes the thorax and abdomen), arms and hands, legs and feet.

3- The human body involves anatomy, physiology, histology and embryology.

4-Physiology focuses on the systems and organs of the human body and their functions.

5-The human body is composed of elements including hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, calcium and phosphorus.

6-The adult male body is about 60% water for a total water content of some 42 litres.

7-Sodium and chloride are the main electrolytes in body water outside of cells, whereas within cells it is potassium and other phosphates.

8-Cells in the body function because of DNA.

9-The body consists of many different types of tissue that act with a specialised function.

10-The body consists of four main types of tissues, lining cells (epithelia), connective tissue, nervous tissue, and muscle tissue.

11-The study of tissues is called histology .

12-Endothelial cells are cells that line internal cavities including blood vessels and glands.

13-The circulatory system comprises the heart and blood vessels (arteries, veins, and capillaries).

14-The digestive system consists of the mouth including the tongue and teeth, esophagus, stomach, (gastrointestinal tract, small and large intestines, and rectum).

15-The digestive system also consists of liver, pancreas, gallbladder, and salivary glands.

16-The endocrine system consists of the principal endocrine glands: the pituitary, thyroid, adrenals, pancreas, parathyroids, and gonads.

17-The immune system consists of the white blood cells, the thymus, lymph nodes and lymph channels.

18-The integumentary system consists of the covering of the body (the skin), including hair and nails as well as other functionally important structures such as the sweat glands and sebaceous glands.

19-The musculoskeletal system consists of the human skeleton (which includes bones, ligaments, tendons, and cartilage) and attached muscles

20-The lungs sit in the pleural cavity.

21-The intestines, liver and spleen sit in the abdominal cavity.

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