Biology – HEREDITY -Important Points -One Liners

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1- Mendel (Father of genetics) experiments stands for Heredity.


2-Differences in characters with in closely related groups of organisms are called variations.

Externally visible characters are called phenotype.


3-TT or YY, Tt or Yy are responsible for a dominant character.


4-There are nearly 180 vestigial (not useful) organs in man (moving museum of vestigial organs).
Ex. Pinna, hair on skin, appendix


5-The process of acquiring change is called evolution.


6-The allosomes (sex chromosomes) present in female are XX and in males are XY.


7-The phenotypic ratio in monohybrid cross is 3:1, and genotypic ratio is 1:2:1.


8-Evolution of man: 1. Homo habilus 2. Homo erectus 3. Homo sapiens neanderthalensis 3.Homo sapiens(present man).


9-The study of fossils (evidence of ancient life forms) is called palaeontology.


10-Mendel had chosen 7 pairs of characteristics for his study in pea plants.


11-Phenotypic ratio in di hybrid cross is 9:3:3:1.


12-Alleles are same for character in homologous and different in heterologous.


13-Paleontologists determine the age of fossils by carbon dating.


14-Change in frequency of genes in small population is known as genetic drift.


15-Transmission of characters from parent to offspring is called heredity and the process is called inheritance.


16-Each human cell contains 22 (autosomes) + 1 (allosomes) pairs of chromosomes.


17-Variations are formed during sexual reproduction or because of errors in DNA copying.


18-Augustus Weismann proved in rats that the body changes won’t be passed to its offspring.


19-Mendel factors are now known as genes (segment of DNA).


20-The law of inheritance of acquired characters was proposed by Lamarck.


21-Evolution of new species is called speciation (macro evolution).


22-Charles Lyell wrote the book “The principals of geology”.

23-Theory of natural selection was proposed by Darwin.


24-Evolution of homologous traits is called divergent and heterologous is convergent evolution.


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